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Paper history - 19th & 20th CENTURY

The history of the paper industry in the 19th and 20th centuries can be broken down into five partly overlapping periods, each marked by definite trends.

In the first stage (from about 1800 to 1860), all work sequences previously performed by hand were mechanised. This included the rag preparation, the use of fillers, pulp beating, the paper machine with its various parts, and the machines required for finishing the paper (the headbox, wire section, press section, dryer section, units for reeling, smoothing and packaging).

During the second stage (about 1840 to 1880), efforts were made to obtain rag substitutes on an industrial scale (groundwood pulp and chemical pulp) and appropriate industrial plants (groundwood and chemical pulp mills) were developed.

The third stage (1860 to 1950) was marked by the enlargement of the web width, an increase in working speeds, the introduction of electric drive and further improvements to various machine parts. Machines designed specifically for the production of particular paper and board grades (for example the Yankee cylinder and multi-cylinder machines) were also developed. The web working width grew from 85 cm (1830) to 770 cm (1930), while production speeds rose from 5 m/min. (1820) to over 500 m/min. (1930).

The fourth stage (1950 to 1980), which was still dependent on the old methods as far as the mechanics were concerned, brought unprecedented changes in papermaking. Alongside further increases in web width and working speeds, there was the use of new materials (thermo-mechanical pulp, deinked recovered paper, new fillers, processed chemicals and dyes), new sheet forming options (e.g. by twin-wire formers), neutral sizing, greater stress on ecology (closed loops) and, most of all, automation. The operational impact of these changes was: specialisation in certain paper types; development of new paper grades (LWC - lightweight coated paper); corporate mergers; company groups with their own raw material supply and trading organisations; closure of unprofitable operations.

1980 onwards

The fifth stage leads into the future. The evolution of new sheet-forming principles (with fluid boundaries between paper and non-woven fabrics) and chemical pulp processes have been the main process improvements. However, the situation on the global market (increased demand, above all in the Third World, trends in chemical pulp prices, problems of location), are again raising capital intensity and encouraging the formation of big company groups with international operations. At the same time there are definite opportunities for smaller, local firms satisfying specific needs.


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