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    要闻和事件 » 目录 UKp - - - paper - Magazine Roll-up Crafts - How to Make a Vase out of Magazines - How To Make Paper - How To Make Paper - How to on Handmade Paper - Exhibit shows paper to be anything but plain - Timerman: “The pulp mill of Colonia respects the treaty of Río de la Plata” - What is Kraft Paper? - Thurso, QC, pulp mill restart will restore large pulpwood, biomass demand - Timber management company enters biomass supply realm - Giant miscanthus grass studied for biofuel production - AbitibiBowater studies $51M power generation project in Ontario - Alabama Power partners with lumber producer Westervelt to make biomass energy - Clearwater using wood slash for biofuel at Idaho mill [From the web] - Wisconsin legislature advances logging equipment tax relief bill - New York coal power plant to co-fire with wood - BC government issues review of busy 2009 wildfire season - USDA announces new subsidies and loans for biomass development - Quebec wood energy plant expands effort to use fuel from old bark piles - Bids come in to convert IP’s Franklin mill to energy plant - Graphic Packaging to go off the grid with 100% biomass in Georgia - Electrabel more than quadruples wood biomass use at Netherlands power plant - Idle QC pulp mill to become pellet plant - Clenergen, Honeywell to test dedicated wood biomass crops for oil production - Siemens awarded contract for biomass-powered turbine at paper mill in UK - May 5, 2010 Clenergen secures land lease in India to cultivate dedicated biomass crops - The RISI Top 50 Power List - APP applies advanced wastewater treatment to enhance environmental performance - New York coal power plant to co-fire with wood - Demand drop caused IP Franklin mill shutdown [From the web] - Paperlinx to close Burnie Mill in Tasmania and become merchant only - Billerud's Skärblacka paper mill faces production shutdown due to Swedish paper union strike - Taiwan Pulp & Paper halts production due to earthquake - Asia Pulp & Paper Disappointed in Subsidy Case Findings - Metso to deliver defibrator system to Siempelkamp for Indonesia - 2010 AF&PA Community Recycling Award Presented to Virginia Beach, Virginia - Process for manufacturing bleached pulp with reduced chloride production - £350,000 kit investment for new finishing startup - APP claims new study proves its green credentials - Pulp giants to boost capacit) - Paper - How To Recycle Paper (homemade Letter Paper) - Paper recycling information sheet - Recycling Cardboard and Paper - Why Recycle Paper? - CHINA - TEND YOUR TALENT ‘SEEDLINGS’ - THE PRIDE OF ESTONIA - WORLDWIDE NEWS - Wood pulp - Pulp mill - Wood pulp is made in several stages: - Paper history - 3000BC - Paper history - AD 105 - Paper history - AD 610 - Paper history - 14th CENTURY - Paper history - 16th CENTURY - Paper history - 17th CENTURY - Paper history - 18th CENTURY - Paper history - 19th & 20th CENTURY - Paper history - 2000 & BEYOND -
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Paper history - 16th CENTURY

The advantages of this mill-based papermaking technique, which spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries far outweighed the disadvantage of considerable outlays of time and capital for building and fitting out with new machinery and equipment. However, the change in the production process, thanks to the division of labour, boosted output and improved quality. And it could certainly generate a profit, as some examples prove. On the other hand, there was a growing risk of an imbalance between costs and earnings, a state of affairs noted in the numerous reports of business failures among papermakers.

Later, many paper merchants took over the mills as owners, while the master papermakers practised their trade as lessees. This trend was stepped up by the special conditions prevailing in the book sector, where a book printer or publisher had to fund the production costs (paper, composition, printing) of a work before the sale of the print run generated revenue. The result was that he was often indebted to the paper suppliers.

Work at the vat normally involved four people: the vatman, who made the sheet using a mould; the couch squirt, who worked in time with the vatman and placed the sheet on felt; the layman, who drew off the still moist sheets from the felt after pressing; and the apprentice, who had to feed material to the vat and provide for vat heating. The press was operated jointly by the team. Depending on format and basis weight, up to nine reams (4,500 sheets) of paper could be made in the course of a working day of around 13 hours.


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